Causes and Features of Depression During Pregnancy
Pregnancy is the most beautiful time, but sometimes it is marred by problems of a mental nature. The most common of these is depressive disorder. They suffer about 10% of pregnant women.
Turning to this topic, we consider it necessary to pay attention to the fact that depression during pregnancy is not just mood swings caused by hormonal changes, it is a serious disease. Despondency literally absorbs the whole personality of the future mummy. Nothing pleases her, even the soon appearance of a child causes only fear and anxiety. A pregnant woman becomes a hostage to her inner experiences.
The most unpleasant thing in this situation is that depression of pregnant women can subsequently influence the mental well-being of the future baby. That’s why you should not ignore this problem in any case.
Depression in pregnant women can lead to irreparable health problems. Do not forget that in front of birth. An exhausted nervous system can not withstand such stress. To avoid undesirable consequences and enjoy the joy of motherhood, it is necessary, at the first signs of depression, to contact either a gynecologist or a psychotherapist.
What symptoms should I pay attention to?
Depression of pregnant women can be manifested in different ways. Some women constantly cry, some – can not fall asleep, some – fear the future, leading their fears themselves to suicide attempts. However, there are a number of signs, the presence of which can be judged on the presence of depression. Among them:
- Increased irritability;
- Inability to focus attention;
- Feeling hungry or lack of appetite;
- Constant feeling of fatigue;
- Fear of going out;
- Not passing drowsiness;
- Low self-esteem;
- Feeling of despair and bleakness;
- Feeling of guilt;
- Lack of desire to communicate with anyone;
- Sleep disturbances (inability to sleep, nightmares).
What are the causes of depressive disorder in pregnant women?
For a long time it was believed that during the development of hormones that inhibit the development of depression. This conclusion was made by doctors as a result of observations of future mothers. Most of them experienced an emotional upsurge. However, over time, many specialists began to note that stress and physical stress accompanying pregnancy make women more susceptible to depression.
Aggravate the situation additional worldly difficulties. So, one of the most common causes of depression are problematic relationships with the future father of the child. In single women and women living in a state of conflict with their partner, the likelihood of developing depression increases significantly. They do not know what to do in the current, very difficult situation.
In addition, depression during pregnancy can be triggered by a number of the following factors:
Daily accompanying stresses
- (troubles at work, moving, quarreling, divorce) can cause a nervous breakdown and, as a result, depression.
- In the period of expectation of the baby this factor becomes more significant. What if there was hardly enough money? If earlier low income was little pleased, now it causes the strongest alarm, because now you have to take care of the child.
- They include toxicosis. Morning sickness and poor physical well-being do not add optimism. And if the pregnancy is also unexpected, then these problems do not bring particular joy, becoming the causes of the development of depression.
Negative experience of a previous pregnancy.
- According to the results of research by medical psychologists, the previous pregnancy and depression accompanying the following “interesting situation” have a close relationship.
Depression in pregnant women can be triggered by unsuccessful nurturing in the past or infertility. In the event that the birth of a child was preceded by a test (it took a long time to get pregnant, had to go through a lot of painful medical procedures, listen to a lot of sympathetic comments, there were miscarriages, etc.), then the expectation of the baby will be accompanied by anxious thoughts.
In some families, pregnancy provokes a disrespectful attitude to the future mother from the so-called close people. Ticcups, aggression, rudeness from a husband, mother-in-law or other relatives who see a pregnancy as a threat to personal status or well-being cause a frustration in the emotional state. Such situations happen rarely, however, they cause the most serious damage to the psyche of a future mother and baby.
In addition, depression during pregnancy can be caused by unpleasant memories in women who have experienced emotional, sexual or physical abuse in the past. Changes that occur in the body of a future mother, can recall a long-forgotten misfortune. That is why if a woman has been subjected to or is subjected to any kind of violence in the past, she must inform her doctor about it.
- Personal experience of depression in the past and the presence of relatives suffering from depressions are grounds for classifying as a risk group. Such anamnesis can provoke not only prenatal depression, but also postpartum depression.
- Unplanned conception can become the strongest stressor, capable of causing depression.
- The development of the disease can affect the lack of serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and long-term use of sedative drugs.
This list can be continued almost indefinitely. Any stressor, which disbalances the future mother, can cause a mental disorder.
In psychology, the first trimester is known as the “period of negation”. A new life already exists, but the future mother still does not think about her situation and does not take it into account when planning the activity. This, of course, is possible only in the absence of toxicosis. A striking example of this situation can be the planning of a business trip in the rather distant future, at the 36th week of gestation. This is a fairly common and normal situation, the mother does not feel the baby yet, he does not push, the belly does not.
However, this is the most difficult time. The body of a woman begins to rebuild and get used to “work in a new way.” Changes are undergone by all systems of the body, including the nervous system. All sorts of fears and stresses (material well-being, childbirth, social status, child’s health, possible loss of work) surround the future mother. She does not yet know what she will do in the near future, what awaits her.
Depression in pregnant women at this time can be caused by the loss of the opportunity to do your favorite thing (jump with a parachute) or the abandonment of habits that have become a part of life (smoking).
In the first trimester, mood swings and irritability can be quite normal. So with the first changes in the emotional background, you should not label yourself with a depressed patient. In addition, such manifestations, strangely enough, in medicine, act as the first indirect signs of the onset of pregnancy. Pay attention to changes in the emotional background is when they assume the role of a protracted nature, there are talk of death, often there are utterances about the meaninglessness of existence.
Depression in pregnant women at this time can have different consequences for the health of the mother, and for the health of the baby. Scientists from Canada found that the children of women who suffered depression in the first trimester, may experience sleep disorders, have insufficient weight, lag behind in intellectual development.
At this stage of gestation, the woman begins to realize her position. She thinks about what she will do with the appearance of the child, because her personal life will definitely fly somersault. For this reason, psychologists called this stage “the search for the lost object.” This object is understood as a habitual way of life, favorite work, entertainment, friends, etc. It’s strange at this time that women discover for themselves new opportunities and interests that have not been noticed before. Someone starts to draw, someone goes to learn the languages of other peoples. According to all the same psychologists – this is the most fertile time in the life of a pregnant woman.
However, especially sensitive nature melancholic type, having a history of propensity for depression, during this period experience real emotional storms.
The development of depression in the second trimester contributes to a combination of several factors: hormonal changes, insomnia, misunderstanding of relatives, financial problems.
At this time, depression and pregnancy are most related. An increase in body weight, low back pain, frequent urge to urinate, engorgement of the mammary glands are the causes of the appearance of negative thoughts. A clear connection between the physical and her psychoemotional state of the future mother is seen.
The third trimester in psychology was called depression. During this period, even the most balanced nature begins to lose control of themselves. In the thoughts of pregnant women, in addition to their will, there are “rainbow” pictures with pots, pots and diapers. In their soul from time to time there are notes of despondency, loneliness, hopelessness. Increasingly, there is discontent with her husband, who are not forced to change their way of life, mother-in-law, who constantly climbs with her teachings.
Depression and late pregnancy are quite common. Increase the feeling of own helplessness changes that have occurred with the body: the unimaginable size of the stomach, which prevents you from moving normally. Many ladies think that they have lost their former sexual attraction and are not interested in their husband, which causes increased sensitivity and tearfulness. Physical and psychological fatigue exacerbate the negative emotional state.
The behavior of pregnant women before giving birth sometimes seems strange. Women tend to seclude themselves, walk alone for long periods in the open air, immerse themselves in cooking dowry for a baby, etc. However, these behavioral features have nothing to do with depression.
How to Cope with the Disease on Your Own
1. Do not try to remake all the cases before the appearance of the baby: equip the nursery, make repairs in the apartment, prepare reports at work for six months ahead, etc. The first item on the list of the most important cases should be personal well-being and well-being. Pregnancy – a great time to pamper yourself, later no longer have to (diapers, ryazhonki, teeth and other joys of infancy).
2. Daily need to do exercises. Moderate exercise will allow you to feel “muscle joy” and emotional satisfaction.
3. Learn to fight your bad mood, find a job. Take care of your favorite thing, which previously was not enough time: embroider, draw, read. Try to do something new, for example, sign up for the pool.
4. Communicate more often with relatives and relatives. If you do not know what to do with your bad mood and anxious thoughts, openly talk to them about your problems.
5. If fatigue overcomes and you, literally, fall down, try to rest more, do not take the whole work on yourself. Ask your husband to give you a gentle massage of the waist and feet.
6. Pay attention to your food. It should not be too high in calories. Try to eat right, including in the diet of dairy products, fresh fruits and vegetables. Avoid flour and sweet products.
7. In order not to “seize” yourself and your husband with far-fetched problems, try to look at the situation from the side and do not rush to make hasty conclusions.
8. More time walk in the fresh air.
9. Do not try to fight depression yourself. Do not take antidepressants. This applies to the funds that you drank before pregnancy.
10. Protect yourself from unwanted information. Refuse to watch the programs with negative character, films with scenes of cruelty.
11. Create a cozy home for yourself, in which there is no room for emotions and despondency.
12. Learn to respect yourself “like that.” Try to realize the beauty of your position.
There is nothing new in the above-listed councils, but we all tend to forget about common truths. If the state of anxiety does not let go, there is only one negative in the mind, and you do not know what to do with it, then you need to seek help from a doctor who is watching the course of pregnancy. To delay with the treatment is not necessary, because the mother’s well-being directly affects the child’s health.
Features of Treatment of Depressive Disorder in Pregnant Women
Treatment of pregnant women from a depressive disorder has its own characteristics. If possible, the doctor tries to exclude the use of antidepressants, using non-medicamentous medications (meditation, respiratory techniques, art therapy, fairy tale therapy, NLP). However, their use is possible only in the early stages of the disease. In neglected cases with depressive disorder, one can cope only with the help of medicines. When prescribing medication for depression, do not worry about the child’s health. At the moment, there are a number of drugs allowed for admission during pregnancy.