Month: May 2019

Symptoms of disorders of consciousness

  1. Violation of orientation in time, situation, space, surrounding persons and self. Let’s try to reveal a little the essence of each of the points of disorientation.

In time. Of course, to forget what today is the day or day of the week, happened to each of us, especially if the work or the situation (vacation, for example) does not imply the need to clearly monitor them. Another thing, if you struggle to understand what in the yard a season or a year. Or why it’s evening, but only that it was morning, although there may also be options…

In a situation. At once the fool to whom participants of a funeral procession hung for a wish “to drag to you — not to drag”is remembered. In other words, it is alarming if a person is not able to assess what kind of situation and relationships (at least in General terms) develop around him: anniversary or Wake.

In space. Of course, no one requires you to know the exact longitude, latitude, altitude and serial number of the galaxy, but the city, the area, and the way home — should.

In the surrounding seats. The General rule of loving people: if you do not remember the name of the partner, call a Bunny, sun or lapulya — you will live longer. Worse, if you are not able to identify people from the surrounding brother, sister, mother, father (the intricacies of the plot lines Express the hero of the Indian cinema), raises many questions.

In self. Unlike Hu em AI, played perfectly by Jackie Chan, a patient who is truly disoriented in his own personality is unlikely to molest you with self-identification problems. And generally hardly understand a word of speech addressed to him — will react as the sound, but no more. Usually this happens with a gross disorder of consciousness.

It should be added that the above paragraphs are given in such a sequence is not accidental. They are a kind of scale of increasing depth and severity of the disorder of consciousness: from disorientation in time, as the easiest (if not a miss in half a century), to disorientation in his own personality, when everything is very, very bad and the patient’s life is in question.

  1. Detachment from the surrounding reality. This is a situation where the reality itself, the patient itself. Events, facts and external stimuli are perceived as fragments of conversations from the street — fragmentary, on the very verge of perception, a person is not able to seriously and permanently attract attention, not to mention a clear and holistic awareness of them. Confusion, indecision prevail — how to behave in a situation when the reality waves the handle? Confusion, surprise: Oh, what is it? Where is it? Oh my gosh!
  2. Violations of understanding. Since consciousness and the process of thinking are inextricably linked with each other, any violations of consciousness will certainly be reflected in the harmony of thinking. This simplification of the associative process (to complex series, when everything is bad!), and problems with abstraction, and violation of sequence — in one way or another least, in dependence from depth disorder.
  3. Memory disorders relating to the period of the disorder of consciousness, amnesia or congrega. Can be full, when memory falls all the painful period, and partial, when some of the memories still remains. For this reason, many alcoholics who have suffered delirium, swear that more — no-no! And we pretend to believe.

General Psychopathology

In this part, I will try, so to speak, to shove nevpihuemoe, because please be patient, it will be easier and more fun. Come on.

If we consider what is the picture of the disease, it can be divided into three levels of complexity:

  1. The symptoms are as individual manifestations of the disease state.
  2. Syndromes as a set of several symptoms (and not from the ceiling typed, and harmoniously adjacent).
  3. Actually the disease characterized by:

A) necessarily or most often occurring syndromes (what is called” obligate” — from lat. obligatus — a required, indispensable);

B) syndromes occurring from time to time, but not necessarily due here to be (optional), and

C) their change as the disease progresses, or pathokinesis.

The terminology given below is not intended to mislead patients or to plunge into a light trance of frowned girls. The main, if not the only, its task — to lead to a certain common denominator such capacious and imaginative, but too original and picturesque expressions as zakolbasilo, inserts not childishly, a flying trip, the bar collapsed, the roof drove off, the cuckoo flew off, all on nervousness, glitches, nonsense of a gray Mare in a quiet moonlit night, etc., so that specialists of different schools and regions could at least about something, in addition to joint drinking, agree.

To clarify the question of what in the mental activity of a person can go wrong, imagine what it looks like and what conditional fragments this activity is divided into in the norm. So:

  1. Consciousness, where the same without him. The highest form of human reflection of the surrounding reality, characterized by the orientation of man a) in space; b) in time; C) in his own personality.
  2. Perception of the surrounding world: first in the form of sensations as elementary components of the process, and then the perception itself as a more complex and holistic process, not only covering objects and phenomena as a whole, but also laying them out, as they are called, on the shelves (immediately included awareness, understanding and comprehension of the object and phenomenon), as well as representation (when a person mentally reproduces images of objects and phenomena that he perceived earlier).
  3. Attention — not in the sense of universal Achtung, and the ability to focus on any events, objects and activities.
  4. The memory — synthesis, integrative process that encompasses the results of sensation, perception and thinking. It provides memorization (fixation), preservation (retention) and reproduction (reproduction) of past experience. Short-term (while there is a signal source — there are its traces; the source disappeared — traces soon died out) and long-term memory is allocated. You can, of course, take a smart look and note that it is on the terms of retention is divided into iconic (clear, full imprint of 0.25 seconds.), short-term, operational (when the information necessary to achieve a certain goal is selectively stored and reproduced) and long-term (see), but the electorate can fairly rebel.
  5. Thinking is a reflection in the consciousness of the surrounding reality, when a person establishes the relationship of objects and phenomena not only on the basis of the facts lying on the surface (the sun rose — people are hot-hot), but also using the ability to abstraction, analysis and synthesis, as dialectical materialism teaches us. By the way, judging by the huge number of citizens, enriched on the stock exchange, the ability to abstract thinking today is simply frightening scale. In appearance, thinking can be divided into visual-effective (purely concrete), visual-figurative (contemplative-dreamy) and abstract-theoretical (one schrödinger cat what is worth!). You can also on the concrete situation and the abstract and the verbal. Or affective and logical. Or something like that. Forms of thinking are as follows: a) the concept — the allocation of essential properties of a homogeneous group of objects or phenomena; b) judgment — reveals the relationship of the subject — sign, the relationship between objects. Here there is a movement from the particular to the General, from the phenomenon to the essence; C) conclusion — the conclusion of a new judgment from other judgments, obtaining new knowledge from existing knowledge.
  6. It is a process of human communication through language (with words, not anything else). It is divided into internal and external. External speech, respectively, is oral and written. Oral, respectively, — monological and dialogical.
  7. Intelligence (someone would prefer to say — the mind, someone more politically correct – ability) — is the ability of a person to successfully apply existing knowledge and experience in practice. This includes the ability to generate new ideas, as well as criticism and self-criticism.
  8. Emotions: higher and lower, positive and negative. A little digress to make them out more. The scheme of human activity, as an option, can be represented as follows: need — motivation — action — result — emotion. According to the result, positive or negative. Further, the emotions themselves can form new needs (if I liked it, then I need it), sometimes becoming a need per se (Yes, Yes, more!), plus added awareness of Tao and admiring the process of achieving the result — and now a simple scheme is looped and overgrown with fractals. Everything in life, everything as it should be… As for the higher and lower emotions, here is another scheme. According to A. Maslow, the needs can be divided into three levels: a) biological — to breathe, eat, drink, allocate waste products, move, continue the race or have sex (located on the border with the next level); b) social — to create a family, take a place in society, to gain recognition; C) spiritual level — to know yourself and your place in the world, to determine your attitude to religion, to find worldview. The lower emotions are related to the satisfaction of the needs of the biological level, and the higher — respectively, social and spiritual. Reference is also made to the division of emotions on scenicheskoe (mobilizing), and asthenia (disruptive), reactive (as a response to the external process) and vital (due to internal reasons), but also in strength and duration — in the mood (long, smooth), passion is a strong, persistent and profound emotional state and the affect rapid short-term emotion.
  9. Will — is the ability to purposeful organized activities to achieve conscious (and sometimes unconscious) goals. Is completely formed by the age of twenty. The needs and their levels I have just cited, the will sets the direction in the implementation of activities that meet these needs. At all stages, from motivation to result and emotions.
  10. Sleep is a physiological state of the body, alternating with wakefulness and characterized by the absence of conscious mental activity and a significant decrease in reactions to external stimuli.

Now let’s try to consider how each of the components of mental activity can be disturbed.

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