They say that the fifties radically changed the face of psychiatry. Why? Yes, because there was aminazine. And then other neuroleptics. And — antidepressants. And off we go. If you believe the teachers, with the beginning of the era of neuroleptics mentally ill people are not left — in its classic version, which existed before many centuries. Now the psychiatrist at hand has an Arsenal of magic pills and injections: from bad mood, from surveillance of intelligence services, from cosmic rays and alien invasion — Yes from anything. Not only potions of intelligence, charisma powder, vaccinations conscience and something else on the little things. And Yes, still no one really knows what’s going on in your head and where schizophrenia comes from. But now there is an opportunity not to keep patients in isolation from society for life.
A natural question: what was the treatment of patients in psychiatric hospitals until the fifties? Let me give you a brief overview of the methods — so you have a General idea about them.
The ancient Greeks to the mentally ill were quite severe — could and stones beat. According to some reports, particularly demoniac they even chained or put on an electric Stingray (as we see, the basics of electroconvulsive therapy date back to the fifth century BC).
The Romans offered their options: to follow, to avoid constipation (it’s in melancholia), bind and keep in the dark (rage and fury), to give the emetic and the time to associate with hallucinations and delusions (if not helps, to prescribe “fasting and healing Lyuli”, recommended that Celsus). And epilepsy was proposed to treat the blood of a Gladiator. No,no, don’t spill it. That is to spill, of course, and then give it to the insane.
Quite varied were approaches to the treatment of mental illness in medieval Europe. Patients were often kept at monasteries and used exorcism. Hot iron and therapeutic auto-dafe were used infrequently. For the treatment of melancholy offered to eat pork heart stuffed with herbs. There were also rods (in order to switch the thoughts of the patient to bodily discomfort), mustard plasters for the whole person (to dilute the blood, stagnated in melancholy), bloodletting and, as an act of condescension, — warm baths. In Switzerland, in a shelter near Zurich, practiced content on the chain and the daily issuance of wine for medicinal purposes. Hellebore water was used quite widely — both from lice on the head, and from “cockroaches” inside (now it, by the way, sometimes pour alcoholics caring wife, in full accordance with the attached instructions).
In Europe, the XVIII century continue to actively use americnas water (it was used in psychiatry for a long time) and practice of the cold water. The British instead of ropes and shackles begin to use a straitjacket — a prototype of a straitjacket. However, in Bedlam still let onlookers (one-penny entrance), and on weekends it’s a full house. The French, through the efforts of Philippe Pinel, too, reject the detention of patients in chains and begin to use a straitjacket to the early nineteenth century. The style of this kind of clothing is relevant to this day.
In the nineteenth century, doctors began to show a greater interest in the mentally ill, combined with irrepressible imagination. Thanks to this, there are a straitjacket chair, a straitjacket bed, a rotational bed and a rotational machine (so that the blood flows to the head and the brain works better), a device for an unexpected immersion in a pool of cold water, as well as an ice shower on the head from a hose (the prototype of the Charcot shower — this method will appear in the same century a little later). Leeches (10-12 pieces per head) are popular in combination with wrapping with cold wet towels and laxative salt (the practice of the ancient Greeks was in use for a long time). Treatment with morphine and cannabis is in Vogue. The first sprouts of psychotherapy begin to break through. Hypnosis is increasingly practiced. There are preparations of bromine and barbituric acid: veronal, medinal. Begin to use paraldehyde and chloral hydrate.
In the XX century (first half) – box methods of treatment of mental illness updated malariotherapy (vaccination of malaria-treated paralysis), and then the injection sulfazine, and electroconvulsive and insulin shock therapy. Except for the lobotomy, of course. And finally, there are the antipsychotics, antidepressants and other psychiatric the contents of the magic briefcase. We look forward to the vaccine against Alzheimer’s disease in this new XXI century, but the creation of vaccinations of conscience and intelligence potions can not even hope.